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As the chart below, from Max Roser at Our World in Data, shows, population growth in a country tends to follow a set series of phases.
According to the same 2011 survey, around 35 percent of parents in Shanghai said raising a child was a heavy burden for them, and 45.3 percent said they wouldn't have a second child, even if policy allowed.
And it's not just the money that couples are spending on kids.
The other clue that scrapping the one-child limit may not have a huge effect is that past rule changes haven't done that much, either.
While we'll never know what China's population would have looked like without the rule, many demographers believe that the effect of the one-child policy on fertility and population has been only marginal, according to Pieter Bottelier, a China expert and professor at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies.